The original one provided this new nutritional quality of dinners, intercourse, stages and you may a variable denoting health standing (overweight/obesity=Body mass index Z-get ?+1)

All of the schools was in fact categorized of the Chilean Ministry out-of Studies towards the about three profile, namely lower-reaching universities, mid-reaching schools and you may large-finding colleges, based upon the latest show of their pupils in most SIMCE evaluation ( thirty two ) .

Anthropometric measurements and health condition

Standardized procedures were used to measure students’ weight to the nearest 0·1 kg, using a Seca scale (SECA, Hamburg, Germany), and height to the nearest 0·1 cm, using a Holtain stadiometer. All instruments were verified before measuring each participant ( Reference Gibson 33 ) . BMI (kg/m 2 ) and height-for-age were evaluated, and Z-scores were obtained according to the references of the Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics (USA) ( Reference Kuczmarski, Ogden and Guo 34 ) . Nutritional status was defined as follows: underweight, BMI Z-score

Socio-financial reputation

Socio-monetary updates (SES) are lumen mentioned using a measure based on Graffar’s modified method which is adapted to help you Chilean urban and you can outlying communities ( Reference Alvarez, Muzzo and Ivaple with the five socio-economic teams: 1=high (0·step three %); 2=mid–large (14·seven %); 3=center (38·step three %); 4=mid–lowest (45·six %); and you can 5=lowest (step 1·step 1 %). But not, inside our analysis we matched such five classes into about three: highest (1+2), center (3) and you can lower (4+5) SES.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis included performing ? 2 tests to compare categorical variables, and ANOVA and Bonferroni tests for comparison of continuous variables. After performing bivariate analyses with each potential confounding variable, including sex, grade, nutritional status, SES and school’s performance, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between the nutritional quality of snacks at school (exposure) and individual academic performance in Mathematics and Language (outcome). In each case, the probability of passing the test was estimated using three models. In the second model, SES was added. Finally, a fully adjusted model contained all mentioned covariates with the addition of a variable denoting the school’s academic performance. Because the variable school’s performance was partly derived from the outcome variables, this adjustment may cause underestimation of the association, so we included models with and without adjustment for school’s performance. A P value of <0·05 denoted statistical significance. Data were processed using the statistical software package Stata SE for Windows version 12·0.


All of our shot was created up of 13·step one ( sd dos·3) year-dated men (52 %) and lady (forty eight %) teens out-of low (44·step 3 %), center (39·six %) and high (step one6·1 %) SES. It went to 5th (51·9 %) and you may 9th (48·step 1 %) amounts in public places (34·8 %), partially paid (57·8 %) and personal schools (7·4 %) about Santiago Metropolitan Part. For nutritional reputation, forty-five % from professionals was indeed over weight or overweight. Almost half of the young (forty eight %) went to large-finding universities, while 29 % and you can 23 % attended middle- and reduced-achieving universities, correspondingly.

Throughout the sample, 56 % out-of students claimed consumption of factors at snack date that have been full of lbs, glucose, sodium and energy. Thirty-six percent were thought about for terrible-to-reasonable snacking, whereas simply 8 % have been considered to eat match affairs when you look at the snack day at school. Table 1 comes with the descriptive statistics of your try. Average beliefs off score within the Language and you will Math were somewhat ong people who have lower nutritional quality of edibles in school (P=0·01). The fresh new express regarding college students sipping below average edibles in school are rather higher certainly one of 9th graders (59 %; P=0·040), youngsters planning to low-reaching colleges (61 %; P=0·036), including among underweight and you may normal-pounds people (69 % and you can 62 %, respectively; P=0·006).